Racial profiling is one of the most common and harmful forms of racism faced by racialized people in their interaction with the criminal justice system. The Commission selected a broad definition of racial profiling for several reasons. I believe that generally the police do a very professional job under often difficult conditions.” (L.R. The African Nova Scotian community is subjected to much greater police surveillance and racial profiling compared with … [2] But, while mental categories are absolutely essential in simplifying and understanding our information-rich environment, stereotypes are not appropriate, as they do not correspond to reality[3]. That is, the police officer need not be an overt racist. ), It is also important to note that concerns with profiling relate directly to the concepts of discretion and power. Criminal profiling, generally, as practiced by police, is the reliance on a group of characteristics they believe to be associated with crime. For the purposes of its inquiry, the Commission’s definition for "racial profiling" is any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection, that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin, or a combination of these, rather than on a reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. Racial profiling refers to the inappropriate targeting of racial and ethnic groups by police officers and other law enforcement officials. The article quotes Bill Currie, Deputy Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police as having said: We do not provide equitable service to marginalized people. In fact, many participants in our process discussed the difficult job that those in a position of authority, especially the police, have. For the purposes of its inquiry, the Commission’s definition for "racial profiling" is any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection, that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin, or a combination of these, rather than on a reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. Such an asymmetry has emerged as a consequence that has affected how the legal rights in regards to the ways the police powers are treated when applying the power of search, investig… Racial Profiling can be described as an individual being suspected of a crime solely on the grounds of their race or ethnicity. And, organizations need to acknowledge that just as each of us can stereotype, so too can their members, even if there is no institutional policy that allows the use of, encourages or even tolerates profiling. Marjorie Cohn is a professor of law at Thomas Jefferson School of Law and past president of the National Lawyers Guild. Discussing a concern with profiling is not the same as saying that every member of an organization profiles, that profiling is an intentional policy of the organization or even that it is an intentional action of those who engage in it. ), “Well, I think there are a lot of damn good men on the force, but I think there are people who are not good. The Commission mostly heard of experiences of profiling from people who identified as Aboriginal, African Canadian, Arab, Chinese and South East Asian, Latin American, South Asian and Muslim. ), “I do not think that all the individuals that are in this organization display racial profiling characteristics or stereotypical judgments. This is what leads to profiling. Therefore, saying that profiling occurs should not necessarily be interpreted as an accusation that those who engage in it are racist.[4]. ), “I know that police are there to help and suffer a lot of abuse in the jobs they do - however they are still humans with thoughts and opinions - You cannot put them on a pedestal and expect them to always leave personal life opinions out of their duties.” (M.N. Racial profiling is a form of discrimination. How to use profiling in a sentence. When you are dealing with marginalized people, you exercise power differently than you do with those who are advantaged or have status in society. Although anyone can experience profiling, racialized persons are primarily affected. Racial profiling at the border is not new, according to former border agent and immigration lawyer Guidy Mamann. First and foremost, it is the Commission’s view that racial profiling is primarily a mindset. "Racial Profiling" refers to the discriminatory practice by law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individual's race, ethnicity, religion or national origin. ), “I do believe that this was profiling by two individuals and not the entire police force. uncountable noun Racial profiling is government or police activity that involves using people’s racial and cultural characteristics to identify people to investigate....controversies involving racial profiling and corruption. Typically but not always, profiling is carried out by persons in positions of authority, and can occur in many contexts involving safety, security and public protection issues. ), “The cops should not judge us all the same and the public should not judge all police officers the same.” (N.W. is dispute regarding what defines racial profiling. Because stereotyping may be subtle and unconscious, in many cases the person engaging in it may not even realize that it has occurred. Let us join the voices of compassion and oppose the mean-spirited actions that aim to legalize racial profiling and scapegoat immigrants. Laws like SB 1070 demean us all. Typically, but not always, profiling is carried out by persons in a position of authority. Persons in society who hold positions in which they exercise a large degree of discretion have more of an opportunity to engage in profiling and are also more likely to be perceived to be engaging in racial profiling in the exercise of their discretion. In other words, criminal profiling is not the same as racial profiling since the former is based on objective evidence of wrongful behaviour while racial profiling is based on stereotypical assumptions. Racial profiling is wrong and ineffective. In European countries, the term "ethnic profiling" is also used instead of racial profiling. “The police have a tough job to do.... We all have built in stereotypes and instincts that sometimes we count on.” (S.P. The Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse has adopted the following definition of racial profiling1: “Racial profiling is any action taken by one or more people in authority with res-pect to a person or group of persons, for reasons of safety, security or public or- According to the Ontario Human Rights Commission “Racial profiling is based on stereotypical assumptions because of one’s race, colour, ethnicity, etc.” whereas criminal profiling “relies on actual behaviour or on information about suspected activity by someone who meets the description of a specific individual” (Facts Sheet, para 2). … The Commission has noted that profiling can occur because of a combination of the above factors and that age and/or gender can influence the experience of profiling. Bargh & T.L. )T Racial Profiling in Canada 1296 Words | 6 Pages. This designation is decided by school officials, a practice that, according to the province’s Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse (cdpdj), has been associated with racial profiling, as it gives “substantial discretionary power to school personnel in terms of deciding which students it should be applied to.” A. Racial profiling is one of the most significant and complex issues facing law enforcement in Canada. This is what leads to profiling. A new report by three independent researchers finds there is systemic bias in street checks by Montreal police but stops short of concluding officers are guilty of racial profiling. In “ Singled Out ”, the Star’s analysis of arrest data from the Toronto Police Services revealed that Black Canadians were highly over-represented in certain offence categories, including drug possession and trafficking. racial profiling (n.). Definition of Racial Profiling In the context of rights to life, liberty and property, a concept of Racial Profiling is provided here: Police targeting of racial minorities as potential suspects of criminal activities. Chartrand, “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being” (July 1999) 54 American Psychologist 462-479. Racial profiling is different from criminal profiling. [2] Public Service Commission of Canada, “Stereotyping” Monograph Issue 3 (October 1995), online: Public Service Commission of Canada . Persons who are in a position to engage in racial profiling need to be especially vigilant to check their assumptions and biases. The African Canadian Legal Clinic, based in Toronto, has adopted the following definition: “Racial profiling is criminal profiling based on race. His book, "Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work" (2003), directly challenges the assertion of law enforcement that profiling is … Chartrand, “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being” (July 1999) 54 American Psychologist 462-479. At the time the ideology explained some political and economic conflicts in parts of the world, and legitimized the dominant role of British capitalism in the world economic system. Racial Profiling and the War against Terrorism Controversies over racial profiling are hardly new in Canada. [The Association’s Policing and Aboriginal Peoples Committee] analyzed statistical, investigative and anecdotal information from across the country and we had no choice but to come to this regrettable conclusion. At its heart, profiling is about stereotyping people based on preconceived ideas about a person’s character. The fact that racial profiling may occur on a subconscious level has been recognized, for example by the Ontario Court of Appeal in, B. Powell, “Police Chiefs Told To Help The Helpless”. Racial profiling occurs when an individual is subjected to differential treatment or greater scrutiny because of negative stereotypes related to their race or other grounds such as religious beliefs, colour, ancestry or place of origin or a combination of these. Profiling can occur in many contexts involving safety, security and public protection issues. And, it is a particular concern when people act on their stereotypical views in a way that affects others. The article quotes Bill Currie, Deputy Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police as having said: Membership in vocational associations and trade unions, Paying the price: The human cost of racial profiling, The impact of racial profiling on the Aboriginal community, Appendix A: Major reports relevant to racial profiling and Aboriginal peoples, http://www.psc-cfc.gc.ca/publications/monogra/mono3_e.htm>. It has long been recognized that the Canadian justice system is fraught with racism that disproportionately impacts Black people and communities across the country, resulting in racial profiling, harsher sentencing, mistreatment in prison, denial of services, and other injustices which can be compounded for people with intersecting identities (e.g. Black Muslims, Black LGBTQ2S folks, etc. Racial Profiling goes against the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom, and takes away an individual rights. Practical experience and psychology both confirm that anyone can stereotype, even people who are well meaning and not overtly biased. Indeed, a frank exploration of each of our own assumptions and biases would lead many of us to realize that at some point or other we have stereotyped someone. However the ones that do it manage to give the entire organization a negative image.” (R.G. Harris is considered to be one of this nation's leading authorities. At the same time, the Commission has emphasized that racial profiling differs from criminal profiling which isn’t based on stereotypes but rather relies on actual behaviour or on information about suspected activity by someone who meets the description of a specific individual. The Commission selected a broad definition of racial profiling for several reasons. Racial Profiling and Human Rights in Canada examines a combination of psychological, sociological, organizational, political, and community perspectives, resulting in a holistic, multi-faceted approach to understanding the phenomenon of racial profiling and to pre-empting or eradicating it. Prejudice is in all of us and if you are in a position of power you can wield it.” (N.S. Critics ask Is it racist, or is a necessary part of law enforcement. What if racial profiling is not only morally wrong but also ineffective? a landlord asks a Chinese student to move out because she believes that the tenant will expose her to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) even though the tenant has not been to any hospitals, facilities or countries associated with a high risk of SARS. Stereotyping can be described as a process by which people use social categories (e.g. While xenophobia —or fear of those unlike ourselves —has long been a part of human cultures, the concept of race first appeared in the English language around the 17th century. This was recently acknowledged by one of Ontario’s top law enforcement officials at the 98th annual conference of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police.[5]. (26 August 2003). COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary. Some examples of profiling presented during the inquiry include: For further information please visit our Web site at www.ohrc.on.ca or call 1-800-387-9080 (toll-free), (416) 326-9511 (in Toronto), 1-800-308-5561 (TTY toll-free), (416) 326-0603 (TTY Local).Â, Membership in vocational associations and trade unions. If indeed racial profiling exists in Canada, it would be in direct violation of at least a few sections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. However, 9/11 changed both the tenor and the nature of the debate. law enforcement official assumes someone is more likely to have committed a crime because he is African Canadian; school personnel treat a Latino child’s behaviour as an infraction under its zero tolerance policy while the same action by another child might be seen as normal "kids’ play"; a private security guard follows a shopper because she believes the shopper is more likely to steal from the store; an employer wants a stricter security clearance for a Muslim employee after September 11. a bar refuses to serve Aboriginal patrons because of an assumption that they will get drunk and rowdy; a criminal justice system official refuses bail to a Latin American person because of a belief that people from her country are violent; and. While profiling can be intentional, it can also be inadvertent. J.A. They nevertheless emphasized that racial profiling can occur because of the challenges of the job. North Americans began to use the term in their scientific writings by the late 18th century. While it may be somewhat natural for humans to engage in stereotyping, it is nevertheless wrong. Bargh & T.L. We do this because it allows us to organize and simplify complex situations and give us greater confidence in our ability to understand, predict and potentially control situations. Learn more. Racial profiling is identified by Adele Cassola in her article as unjust whereas Denyse Coles argues that racial profiling is necessary and is not considered racism. a landlord asks a Chinese student to move out because she believes that the tenant will expose her to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) even though the tenant has not been to any hospitals, facilities or countries associated with a high risk of SARS. The jurisprudential term “articulable cause” in Canada equates to lack of “reasonable grounds” in the U.S., which is regarded as de jure evidence concerning “racial profiling” even when specific evidence on racial biasness is missing. Similarly, those in a position of power may consciously or unconsciously exercise that power differently when dealing with racialized persons. Racial or ethnic profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person on the basis of assumed characteristics or behavior of a racial or ethnic group, rather than on individual suspicion. Racial profiling is identified by Adele Cassola in her article as unjust whereas Denyse Coles argues that racial profiling is necessary and is not considered racism. Prior to (3d) 161 at 165: “The attitude underlying racial profiling is one that may be consciously or unconsciously held. Stories about racial profiling constantly appear in the news, but that doesn’t mean the public has a good grasp on what this discriminatory practice is. The ambiguity of the phrase “racial profiling” has found itself favoured in the Canadian Courts. This definition of racial profiling is used in context and coupled with examples to help clarify. Racial profiling is based on stereotypical assumptions because of one’s race, colour, ethnicity, etc.  Criminal profiling, on the other hand, relies on actual behaviour or on information about suspected activity by someone who meets the description of a specific individual. racial profiling meaning: 1. the practice by the police of thinking that people of a particular race or colour will behave in…. "The idea that immigration officers don't racially profile is nonsense," he said. Without a doubt, 9/11 generated a hitherto unmarked level of interest in racial profiling on the part of legislators, the media, and scholars.' Racial Profiling Quebec task force tables recommendations to fight racism in the province The group issued 25 recommendations, including an end to police streets checks.
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